More books on development for the interested generalist

I’ve read quite a few fine books on on international development since I last wrote about books on development for the interested generalist.  I still stand by books 1 -4 and 6 on that list.  I suspect that 5, 7 and 8 may now be outdated.  Here’s what I would add to the list.  Please send your suggestions in as well!

  1. Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History, by Douglass North, Jim Wallis and Barry Weingast.  A succinct and compelling discussion of why some states become rich and stay rich over the long run, while most remain relatively poor.  Does a great job getting past arguments focused on geography or technology to look at the politics of economic growth.
  2. Scarcity: Why Having Too Little Means so Much, by Sendhil Mullainathan.  A fascinating look at the cognitive effects of poverty, which are considerable.  The brief version of the argument is that people who face constant stress about whether they can afford to meet their basic needs often find it difficult to focus on making longer-term investments, such as making sure their children attend school regularly.  Could be read along with James Scott’s Weapons of the Weak as a short course on why behaviors that might look confusing to outside observers are often quite rational.
  3. Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition have Failed, by James Scott.  Essentially a treatise on standardization (of names, languages, railway gauges, what have you) and the role that this has played in many ambitiously large but ultimately unsuccessful development schemes.  Scott is a wonderful writer, and he has a gift for taking topics that might be dull in the hands of a lesser writer (like the standardization of basket sizes for paying grain taxes in medieval Europe) and finding the human drama within them.
  4. More than Good Intentions: Improving the Ways the World’s Poor Borrow, Save, Farm and Stay Healthy, by Dean Karlan & Jacob Appel, and Poor Economics: A Radical Rethinking of the Way to Fight Global Poverty, by Esther Duflo & Abhijit Banerjee.  Both books offer a great introduction to a new type of research in economics aimed at finding effective policies to reduce poverty.  What I appreciate about this type of research is that it represents to me a type of hopeful pragmatism.  It isn’t geared toward identifying the type of big push policies that might lift a whole country out of poverty in a generation (which few states besides China have the capacity to carry out anyway), but it takes an experimental, iterative approach to finding new products and services that are useful to ordinary people in low income countries.
  5. Montaillou: The Promised Land of Error, by Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie.  A truly remarkable book about daily life in a small town in the mountains of southern France in the early 14th century.  Many people in the town held Albigensian beliefs, and were subject to an inquisition by the Catholic Church, which produced exhaustive records of their interactions with their neighbors and with visiting Albigensian holy men.  Le Roy Ladurie used these records to reconstruct a richly detailed portrait of personal, political and economic life in rural France nearly 700 years ago.  It’s a poignant reminder that even today’s high income countries were once basically just as poor as anywhere else – but also that poverty doesn’t inherently have to mean isolation, deprivation, or constant unhappiness.
  6. The Zenith, by Duong Thu Huong.  A fantastic recent novel by one of Vietnam’s leading authors.  It’s an imaginative retelling of the end of Ho Chi Minh’s life in an isolated mountain villa, and how it comes to intersect with the daily lives of the people living in the small towns nearby.  Rather like Montaillou, this is a much more complex, interesting, and deeply felt portrayal of rural life in a low income country than people from high income countries are usually exposed to.

Recent conference highlights

It’s been a busy few months of conference attendance recently, and I wanted to share some of the papers that really stood out to me.  At ISA:

  • Lior Lehrs had a very interesting presentation on what he calls “private peace entrepreneurs” – people who act without state support to reach out to the opposing side in a conflict and promote peace.  It doesn’t appear that the paper is public, but Ynetnews has a short summary of his work.
  • Olukunle Owolabi also presented a fascinating comparative study on the extension of political rights to former slaves in the US South and the French Antilles.  It’s currently under review, so keep an eye out for it!

Next up was a workshop on “clientelism in comparative perspective,” organized by the Center on the Politics of Development at Berkeley.

  • Nancy Hite discussed her current book project on how economic development changes citizens’ perceptions of the state in the Philippines, building on an earlier microfinance RCT by Dean Karlan and Jonathan Zinman.  No public paper yet, but I’d definitely look for this book when it comes out – it’s a really interesting micro-level look at how growth affects political behavior.
  • Another highlight for the sheer quantity of data used was Pablo Querubin‘s work with Cesi Cruz and Julien Labonne on political family networks in the Philippines.  Because Filipino surnames contain the family names of both parents (for unmarried people) or a father’s family name plus a husband’s name (for married women), they constructed a database of more than 20 million people and traced family and marriage relationships of everyone in 15,000 villages.  Perhaps unsurprisingly, they found that politicians tended to come from disproportionately well-connected families.

Finally, I had a great time (as always) at PacDev.

  • Berk Özler presented joint work with Sarah Baird, Ephraim Chirwa and Craig McIntosh on a five-year follow-up to a program in Malawi which offered young women cash transfers aimed at getting them to stay in school.  The program had offered conditional grants to women who were already in school, and unconditional grants to women who had already dropped out, both of which were effective in getting them back into school.  Five years later, however, the women who got the CCTs (who might have stayed in school anyway) had marital and economic outcomes that looked similar to the control group, while the UCT group (who otherwise would have dropped out) did have persistently better outcomes.
  • David Yang and Yuyu Chen had a fascinating paper on how people perceive the credibility of the Chinese government in trying to shift the narrative around the Great Leap Forward.  The government blamed the famine of that period on drought, and Yang and Chen find that people living in famine-affected areas where there was in fact a drought reported higher levels of trust in the state than those who didn’t observe drought in their region.  The effects persisted for more than half a century, and tended to get reinforced by marriage, as people who didn’t trust the state disproportionately married each other.

A new must-read site on Ebola and capacity building in Liberia

I don’t know who’s behind the site Codex Lector, but they’re writing about the Ebola response in Liberia through the lens of critical anthropology, and it’s fascinating.  Here are two posts on the World Bank’s descriptions of “traditional” healthcare practices:

[First post] The World Health Organization has a post about why the Ebola outbreak centered in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone has been so devastating that uses a fairly standard term for one of the aggravating factors of the epidemic in a section titled “Reliance on Traditional Healers”:

Traditional medicine has a long history in Africa. Even prior to the outbreaks, poor access to government-run health facilities made care by traditional healers or self-medication through pharmacies the preferred health care option for many, especially the poor.

Some day, I should like to go back to the United States, and tell someone who took the Hippocratic oath, and is proud of her storied alma mater, that it is so nice that she practices non-traditional medicine, lacking in a long history. In this dream, she would also be blessed that none of her patients ever go to a pharmacy to purchase medications over the counter when they feel ill.

[Second post] … Sometimes the World Health Organization post about the aggravation of Ebola risk is not performative, but rather just silly, as when it says, “The traditional custom of returning, often over long distances, to a native village to die and be buried near ancestors is another dimension of population movement that carries an especially high transmission risk.”

Considering how normal going home when you get sick, or have a terminal illness, is in Europe and the United States, I do not imagine it would have terribly harmed the WHO to have not referred to the practice as a “traditional custom” peculiar to West Africa.

This post on the challenges of carrying out a census in rural towns served by bad roads will be familiar to anyone who’s done quantitative data collection in a low-income place.  However, there’s also a novel point here about how “there are fewer lower limits on the size of settlements” in places without schools or clinics, as it suggests that the type of practices used to manage population density in the precolonial era are still in use today.

I’ve spent much of the last two weeks poring over government and NGO tables and maps of settlements in southern Liberia, and having discussions about the same.  …  Part of the issue is that much of rural Liberia is fantastically difficult to survey, with the result that well-meaning statisticians and demographers do their counting in places that are easy to count, and presume that places that are hard to count are rather like them. In other cases, tables include data only from parts of the country where the ministry doing the counting has an office, or has an employee. …  [In addition,] when it is the case that schools, roads, clinics, and so forth are not available for long periods of time (or that their presence is actually a risk factor for violence, as it might be in a civil war), there are fewer lower limits on the size of settlements, and thus great profusion of places that may or may not be counted in a particular tally.

Employee absence as an indicator of patronage

I attended an interesting presentation recently by Michael Callen (UCSD) on the political economy of public employee absence in Pakistan (PDF).  In an observational study of doctors at public clinics in Pakistan’s Punjab region, he and his co-authors found that doctors who personally knew their MPs were almost twice as likely to be absent as those who did not.  Furthermore, doctors in districts which were less politically competitive, and where their sponsoring MPs would thus face less risk of public backlash over poor service provision, were more more likely to be absent than those in competitive districts.  The idea here is that MPs face two conflicting incentives: it’s cheaper to them to provide patronage goods (like jobs in the public health service) to individuals in exchange for votes, but if they face political competition, they instead have an incentive to try to provide higher quality goods to more voters.

Links of the day

  1. Stability, the International Journal of Security and Development, is a new open-access journal which aims to quickly get relevant academic research to policymakers.
  2. Tom Murphy points out that cancer kills many more people in low income countries each year than does HIV, and Think Africa Press writes that the severe lack of opiates in Africa makes palliative care for cancer victims quite difficult.
  3. Must African presidential aspirants go to prison before they take higher office? (In French)
  4. Videos of cash transfer recipients in Kenya and Mozambique telling their stories in their own words.
  5. A new RCT questions the external validity of RCT-proven results (a political economy story about implementing organizations), and a study from Brazil finds that rainfall fluctuations during pregnancy are associated with changes in infant health outcomes, calling the use of rainfall as an instrument for just about everything into question.

Staying healthy in low income countries

Last but not least in the travel advice series: staying healthy.

Don’t bring:

  • An obsessive fear of illness.  Disease-related morbidity is certainly higher in low income countries than in high income, but if you have the money to travel then you have the money to stay healthy.  It’s an object lesson in public health.

Do bring:

  • Sunblock (which you should be wearing every day anyway!).  I like Lubriderm’s SPF 15 moisturizer, which is unscented and non-greasy.  If you’ll be outside for long periods, get waterproof sunblock in a higher SPF and reapply frequently.
  • Hand sanitizer. Get the alcohol-based type, which are more effective than those containing triclosan or other antibacterial agents and won’t promote the growth of resistant bacteria.
  • DEET-free bug spray.  DEET is effective, but it’s inconvenient to wash it off before bed every night, and isn’t recommended for use with small children.  I’ve been happy with Repel’s lemon eucalyptus insect spray.
  • Anti-malarial medication.  Malarone and doxycycline are commonly available in the US.  Mefloquine is no longer available by its brand name, Lariam, but is still sold as a generic.  All of them have a non-negligible prevalence of side effects (with mefloquine being known for being hallucinogenic, doxy for causing sun sensitivity, and Malarone for milder effects), so discuss the choice with your doctor.  It is sometimes possible to purchase brand-name anti-malarials like Malarone in low inome countries, but it’s not always available and is sometimes counterfeit, so it’s preferable to get them before departure.
  • Extra doses of prescription medications, and copies of prescriptions.  Check with your pharmacist if any of your medications might be known by another name outside of your home country.
  • Anti-nausea and anti-diarrhea medication.  If your body truly wants to get rid of something it’s eaten, I usually think it’s wiser to let it do so, but if this conflicts with a 14-hour bus ride then Pepto-Bismol will be helpful.  (If you’re worried about dehydration, it’s simple enough to make your own ORS from sugar & salt.)
  • An extra pair of glasses, if you wear them.  Keep your last pair as back-up when you get a new prescription.
  • Iodine tablets for water purification.  Useful if you can’t buy clean water or boil before drinking.  Potable Aqua makes a taste neutralizer that completely removes the iodine flavor.

Do get:

  • The rabies vaccine.  There’s a very low risk you might contact rabies, but it does exist almost everywhere, and is nearly 100% fatal if you’re exposed and are unable to get treatment rapidly.  Getting the prophylactic vaccine before departure will buy you several extra days to get help if you’re bitten by an animal.
  • Deworming pills at a local pharmacy.  Only important if you’ve been exposed to water or food in places where open defecation is common.  Most local pharmacies will have them.