Social protection research centers

Continuing on my SP data kick, I wanted to highlight some of the key research centers and publications that are useful for understanding the contemporary social protection landscape.

The World Bank’s Social Protection Unit: A major funder of SP programs around the world, the WB also offers a wealth of data and analysis. Key publication: Sourcebook on the Foundations of Social Protection Delivery Systems (2020).

ILO Global Flagship Program on Building Social Protection Floors for All: The ILO advocates for social protection floors and offers policy analysis to partner governments. Key publication: World Social Protection Report 2017 – 2019 (2017).

The IADB’s Social Protection Unit: Major funder of SP programs in Latin America and the Caribbean. Key publication: The Unequal Burden of the Pandemic: Why the Fallout of Covid-19 Hits the Poor the Hardest (2020).

The Transfer Project: A research center which carries out rigorous evaluations of cash transfer programs around the world. Key publication: A Mixed-Method Review of Cash Transfers and Intimate Partner Violence in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (2018).

ODI Equity and Social Policy Unit: Research and commentary on global social protection programs. Key publication: Cash Transfers: What Does the Evidence Say? (2016).

Centre for Social Protection at IDS: A research center which carries out program evaluations and shares commentary on social protection. Key publication: Linking Social Rights to Active Citizenship for the Most Vulnerable: the Role of Rights and Accountability in the ‘Making’ and ‘Shaping’ of Social Protection (2019).

Centre for Social Science Research at UCT: The research center covers a range of topics, but filtering the publication list by “CSSR” brings up a strong focus on social protection in southern Africa. Key publication: The politics of social protection policy reform in Malawi, 2006-2017 (2020).

ERIA’s Social Protection Unit: A research institute focused on SP in East Asia and ASEAN countries. Key publication: Social Protection Goals in East Asia: Strategies and Methods to Generate Fiscal Space (2018).

Maintains: A five-year research program on adaptive social protection in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kenya, Pakistan, Sierra Leone, and Uganda. Key publication: Conceptual framework for studying social protection responses to COVID-19 (2020).

The Political Economy of Social Protection Expansion in Africa at ESID: A research program focused on Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. Key publication: The Politics of Social Protection in Eastern and Southern Africa (2019).

Research at GiveDirectly: GD implements programs which are designed to answer pressing questions about the impacts of cash transfers. Key publication: The impact of unconditional cash transfers on poor households in rural Kenya (2016).

SocialProtection.org: Online portal for events, courses, and publications related to social protection. Key publication: Options for rapid delivery (payment) of cash transfers for COVID-19 responses and beyond (2020).

3ie’s Social Protection Unit: Shares impact evaluations, systematic reviews, and evidence gap maps related to social protection. Key publication: Household and economy-wide impacts of a public works programme in Ethiopia (2017).

GDSRC’s Social Protection Unit: Shares impact evaluations and systematic reviews related to social protection, and has a topic guide for people new to the sector. Key publication: Social Protection Topic Guide (2019).

Social protection data sources

I’ve been digging into different data sources on social protection recently and wanted to collate some of them here. There are lots of great public resources available. If you know of any other useful datasets that I’m missing, do let me know!

Atlas of Social Protection: Indicators of Resilience and Equity (ASPIRE)

  • Data source: World Bank
  • Geographic coverage: 125 countries
  • Temporal coverage: 1998 – 2019
  • Regularly updated: Yes
  • Main indicators: Adequacy of benefits (as a percentage of total monthly consumption), transfer size, income level of beneficiaries, program coverage, cost-benefit ratio, poverty gap reduction
  • Notes: Indicators are broken down by program type, urban vs. rural beneficiaries, and income quintiles

Social Assistance in Low and Middle Income Countries (SALMIC)

  • Data source: University of Manchester
  • Geographic coverage: 110 countries
  • Temporal coverage: 2000 – 2015
  • Regularly updated: No
  • Main indicators: Program type, target population, targeting method, transfer value and frequency, transfer modality (cash vs. digital), implementing agency, program budget

World Social Protection Report 2017 – 2019

  • Data source: ILO
  • Geographic coverage: 189 countries
  • Temporal coverage: 1995 – 2018
  • Regularly updated: Yes
  • Main indicators: Program coverage, program funding, implementing agency, benefit type
  • Notes: Indicators are broken down by beneficiary type (children, mothers, people with disabilities, unemployed people, the elderly)

Social Security Programs Throughout the World

  • Data source: US Social Security Administration
  • Geographic coverage: 170 countries
  • Temporal coverage: 2002 – 2019
  • Regularly updated: Yes
  • Main indicators: Regulatory framework, target population, source of funding, implementing agency
  • Notes: Individual country case studies are provided for each year. Not available as a single dataset

Partnership for Economic Inclusion (PEI) Data Portal

  • Data source: World Bank
  • Geographic coverage: 75 countries
  • Temporal coverage: Not stated, but the portal launched in 2020, so the data is recent
  • Regularly updated: Yes
  • Main indicators: Program objectives, program components, cost of program components, target population, implementing partners
  • Notes: Focuses on economic inclusion programs, a.k.a. graduation programs, which offer bundled interventions (such as cash transfers + asset transfers + training) to vulnerable populations. Data can be accessed through their portal but not downloaded

HelpAge Social Pensions Database

  • Data source: HelpAge
  • Geographic coverage: 111 countries
  • Temporal coverage: 1890 – 2016
  • Regularly updated: Yes
  • Main indicators: Benefit levels, targeting, population coverage, program cost

Global Social Protection COVID-19 Response Database

  • Data source: World Bank
  • Geographic coverage: 212 countries
  • Temporal coverage: 2020 (obviously!)
  • Regularly updated: Yes
  • Main indicators: Program type, number of beneficiaries (planned & actual), program budget, adequacy of benefits (as a percentage of total monthly consumption)
  • Notes: Updated versions of this database and accompanying paper are regularly published through Ugo Gentilini’s website

Non-Contributory Social Programs Database for Latin America and the Caribbean

  • Data source: UN
  • Geographic coverage: 21 countries
  • Temporal coverage: 1919 – 2019
  • Regularly updated: Yes
  • Main indicators: Target population, targeting method, payment modality, transfer value, implementing agency, legal framework, program budget
  • Notes: Data is provided for multiple years, not just the most recent year. Individual country case studies and datasets are provided, but there isn’t a single dataset for the entire region.

Realizing the Full Potential of Social Safety Nets in Africa

  • Data source: World Bank
  • Geographic coverage: 48 countries
  • Temporal coverage: Snapshot of country programs in 2017
  • Regularly updated: No
  • Main indicators: Poverty headcount, national social protection strategy, implementing agency, program type, targeting method, program coverage, program expenditure (as % of GDP and government revenue), funding sources, administrative costs, transfer value
  • Notes: Data is provided in the tables in appendices C – J of this book. It’s not available for download as a separate dataset

Social Cash Transfer Payment Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa

  • Data source: UCT
  • Geographic coverage: 44 countries
  • Temporal coverage: 1927 – 2020
  • Regularly updated: No
  • Main indicators: Targeting method, program coverage, payment value, payment frequency, payment modality
  • Notes: Data is provided in the tables in the appendix of this paper. It’s not available for download as a separate dataset.

Social Protection Indicators for Asia and the Pacific

  • Data source: ADB
  • Geographic coverage: 42 countries
  • Temporal coverage: 2005 – 2015
  • Regularly updated: Yes
  • Main indicators: Program coverage, program expenditures, adequacy of benefits
  • Notes: Data can be viewed through their interactive portal and downloaded as a separate dataset for each indicator

World Social Protection Data Dashboards

  • Data source: ILO
  • Geographic coverage: 220 countries
  • Temporal coverage: Snapshot of country programs in most recent year for which data is available
  • Regularly updated: Yes
  • Main indicators: Program coverage (by total population and also by different categories of vulnerable people), expenditure as % of GDP

The Mawazo Institute’s statement on systematic racism

The Mawazo Institute has recently released a statement on the need to address intersectional and structural violence against black Americans, Africans, and women around the world. I’m so proud of the work that our phenomenal team, lead by Kenyan women, is doing to level the playing field by supporting other East African women.

[Image text:

The Mawazo Institute is an African and woman-led organization that exists to support voices that are too often marginalised. Over the last few weeks, we have felt tremendous grief at the killing of George Floyd at the hands of the police.  We have also taken the opportunity to reflect on how this act of violence is a brutal example of the systemic racism that exists not just in the US but around the world.

As actors in the higher education sector, we know of the racism that Black researchers face in academic spaces. As an organisation whose employees are Black, we know, firsthand, about racism. These experiences have helped inform our desire to build the capacities of African researchers in their own countries, communities, and homes.

As we reflect on this moment of global outrage, we are however encouraged by the movement for change that George Floyd has inspired. Proudly, the Mawazo Institute joins voices across the world in declaring that Black Lives Matter. This includes African lives. This includes Kenyan lives. This includes women’s lives. We take this opportunity to stand in solidarity with all those who oppose police and state brutality, and those working to put an end to gender-based violence, which has seen a sharp rise during the pandemic. We are allies in envisioning a world in which every individual is given the opportunity to live up to their fullest potential.

In Solidarity,

The Mawazo Team

#BlackLivesMatter #EndPoliceBrutalityKE #EndGBV]

How are African academics being impacted by the pandemic?

That’s the focus of a new research briefing from the Mawazo Institute.  The project team surveyed over 500 academics, mostly from East Africa, about whether the pandemic had disrupted their research and teaching.  The vast majority said they were experiencing interruptions to their courses and research, while less than 40% said that e-learning was being offered by their institutions.  Combine this with concerns about already-low research output across the continent, and it’s going to be a difficult year for the higher education and research sectors.

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Are African countries doing enough to provide economic relief during the pandemic?

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A pre-covid cash transfer withdrawal in Kenya, via Wikipedia

I’ve got an article out at the New Humanitarian looking at how African countries have responded to the economic impacts of coronavirus.  Most countries were quick to take public health measures to contain the virus, but responding to its economic harms has taken more time.  The first wave of economic measures mostly benefitted the middle class:

Economic relief efforts have come in two waves so far. The first, implemented in late March and early April, often involved cuts in the fees and taxes citizens must pay to the government or to banks.

For example, Kenya has cut income tax rates for both the lowest and the highest earning categories, and has cut corporate tax rates from 30 percent to 25 percent. Ghana is providing free water to citizens as long as they don’t have any overdue bills with the national water company. And 18 African countries have lowered interest rates to encourage individuals and businesses to borrow from banks.

These relief efforts are fairly easy for governments to implement, since they only involve changing payment policies. They also primarily benefit the middle class, who are more likely to have formal jobs that pay income taxes, fully paid water bills, and loans from a bank.

Pro-poor relief efforts are now getting off the ground, albeit more slowly:

The second wave of economic relief efforts is now getting underway as of mid-April. This has involved direct support to poor people who might otherwise go hungry.

Rwanda and Uganda have already begun providing people in their capital cities with food aid. Kenya and Malawi have started cash transfers, and South Africa has increased its monthly payments to current welfare beneficiaries, and is creating new cash transfer programmes for the newly unemployed…

Notably, the countries that moved relatively quickly on economic relief all had welfare programmes in place already. But these existing schemes are primarily aimed at alleviating rural poverty, while the impact of coronavirus is being felt most heavily in cities. This means many countries are being forced to create new relief programmes rather than scaling up existing ones.

 

Scholarship updates for African students and researchers, May 2020

I’ve recently added nearly two dozen new items to my lists of scholarships for African MA and PhD students, and of research and travel funding for African academics.  Do check out the full lists!  (As always, I can’t provide personalized scholarship advising.)